How to Write Research Proposal for MS/Mphil Phd

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Hello everybody, Today I’m going to briefly write about how to write a research proposal for MS/MPhil or Ph.D study. Writing a research proposal is very easy if you have knowledge of the area of research or field in which you want to have your research. For example, I want to write a research proposal for the study in Computer science. So now I have an area for my study but computer science internally consists of many branches like Networking, Software engineering, Artificial intelligence, Operating system, Virtual Reality etc. Now here you need to be specific in computer science. So what does it mean to be specific? to be specific mean you have to select only one branch for example in computer science I want to work in Virtual Reality, Now I have an area where I can specialize, for research work in any area one must have

  1. Knowledge about that area basically known Introduction section in Proposal.
  2. What had done by other researchers in that specific area known as (Background or Literature review).
  3. What are the limitations of other researcher works?.
  4. Why do you want to do this research study or work? ( Aims and objectives of research work)
  5. How You can do this? (Plan of Work).

I want to share here a proposal that may help you a lot in writing your own proposal.


Virtual Reality (VR) is a powerful alternative to live training with costly equipment and hazardous situations, due to its advantages it is demanded to make interaction with 3D virtual environments (VEs) intuitive and natural. Interaction with VEs can be in the form of four main tasks as categorized in [1] [2]; among all these tasks navigation is the most important, because ordinarily prior to any selection & manipulation, navigation is required.

Navigation is the traveling from one place to another in VE for exploring and selection or manipulation of an object. Navigation in VE is achieved through various techniques and interfaces, like the use of traditional keyboard, mouse, Gamepad, and Gestures. The gestures are the most crucial choice for navigation due to its naturalism and intuition like walking in place [3], spacewalk [4], osmos[5], head directed navigation[6],  shake your head[7], first-person movement control with palm normal and hand gesture in virtual reality[8], study on intelligent autonomous navigation of avatar using hand gesture recognition[9], use your head[10], Hands-free multi-scale navigation in virtual environments[11], Navigation system in a virtual environment by gestures[12], Gesture + Play exploring full body navigation for virtual environment[13] and Real-time input of 3D pose and gestures of a user’s Hand and its application for HCI[14].

The available leading gesture-based navigation techniques as mentioned above have limitations  such as walking in place restricts the users not to move his/her head in directions other than in which navigation is performed, spacewalk restricts user to a limited and small VE, osmos uses sophisticated devices and unnatural and not restful gestures for movements in VE, shake your head does not support all navigation motions as well as shaking head for more time is difficult  in a large VE which may cause fatigue. First person movement using palm normal is suitable only for isolated tasks in VEs, a study on intelligent autonomous navigation of avatar using gesture recognition utilizes data glove which is not only expensive but also overloads user’s hand and restricts the free movement of the user due to cables attached to the glove.

Hand gestures based navigation technique will try to eradicate the limitations mentioned in the techniques above to make interaction easy and natural in VE.

Aims and Objectives

Following are the objectives of this research work:

  • To propose a new navigation technique that supports all important navigation tasks.
  • To propose a flexible method of switching among various tasks of 3D interaction without requiring any additional hardware.
  • To propose a navigation technique that is intuitive, natural, easy to learn and minimizes user fatigue.

    Plan of Work

    This research work is based on design and development/creation strategy. The available gestures based navigation techniques will be studied in detail in order to eliminate the limitations (i.e. hard learning, portability issues, lack of naturalism and intuitiveness, avoidance of sophisticated devices) to make navigation efficient by using hand gestures. Performance of the proposed scheme will be evaluated by developing a 3D virtual environment consisting of different paths and virtual objects, where user will be given a target to follow different paths which will require all navigation motions to achieve. The results will be compared with traditional mouse and keyboard navigation techniques on the basis of error rate, time and accuracy. The experiment will be repeated for multiple times in order to check the usability of the proposed scheme.
    The software and hardware resources/tools to be used during the research study are as follows.

    Hardware:     Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU 2.1 GHZ with Memory 4GB. Leap motion controller.

    Software:        Notepad++, Unity 3D 5.3.4. Leap motion SDK 3.1.3


    [1]        J. L. Gabbard, “A taxonomy of usability characteristics in virtual environments” MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, (1997).

    [2]        C. Esposito, “User interface issues for virtual reality systems” in Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, April 13-18,1996, ACM, pp. 340-341, British Columbia, Canada (1996).

    [3]        M. Babaei, “A quality framework for user interaction in virtual environments using wearable devices” in 3rd International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications (ICSIMA), Putrajaya, November  24-25, 2015, pp. 1-6 , IEEE, Malaysia (2015).

    [4]        S. Greuter and D. J. Roberts, “Spacewalk: Movement and interaction in virtual space with commodity hardware” in Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Interactive Entertainment, December 2,2015, Newcastle, pp. 1-7, ACM, NSW, Austrailia (2014).

    [5]        C. Davies and J. Harrison “Osmose: towards broadening the aesthetics of virtual reality” Notes on being in immersive virtual space, ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, November 1996, vol. 30, no. 4, pp 25-28 (1996).

    [6]        A. Fuhrmann, D. Schmalstieg, and M. Gervautz, “Strolling through cyberspace with your hands in your pockets: Head directed navigation in virtual environments” Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop in Virtual Environments’ 98, June 16-18, 1998,  pp. 216-225, , Springer, Vienna (1998).

    [7]        L. Terziman, M. Marchal, M. Emily, F. Multon, B. Arnaldi, and A. Lécuyer, “Shake-your-head: Revisiting walking-in-place for desktop virtual reality” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, November 22,2010, pp. 27-34, ACM, Hong Kong, SAR China (2010).

    [8]        C. Khundam, “First person movement control with palm normal and hand gesture interaction in virtual reality” in 12th International  joint conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), Sangkhla, july 22-24, pp. 325-330, IEEE, Thailand (2015).

    [9]        J.-S. Kim, K.-H. Park, J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Do, K.-J. Song, and Z. Bien, “Study on intelligent autonomous navigation of Avatar using hand gesture recognition” in International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Sheraton Music City Hotel Nashville, October 8-11, 2000, vol. 2, pp. 846-851, IEEE, Tennessee, USA(2000).

    [10]      O.-C. Ungurean, S.-G. Pentiuc, and R.-D. Vatavu, “Use your head: an interface for computer games using head gestures” in Proceedings of the 8th International Gesture Workshop (GW’09), Gesture in Embodied Communication and Human–Computer Interaction,February 25-27 Bielefeld,Germany (2009).

    [11]      J. J. LaViola Jr, D. A. Feliz, D. F. Keefe, and R. C. Zeleznik, “Hands-free multi-scale navigation in virtual environments” in Proceedings of the 2001 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics, Research Triangle Park, pp. 9-15 , ACM,NC USA ( 2001).

    [12]      O. M. Vultur, Ş. G. Pentiuc, and A. Ciupu, “Navigation system in a virtual environment by gestures” in 9th International  Conference on Communications (COMM), june 21-23, pp. 111-114, IEEE, Bucharest, Romania (2012).

    [13]      K. Tollmar, D. Demirdjian, and T. Darrell, “Gesture+ play exploring full-body navigation for virtual environments” in Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop, CVPRW’03, june 16-22, vol. 5, pp. 47-47, Madison, IEEE, Wisconson, USA (2003).

    [14]      Y. Sato, M. Saito, and H. Koike, “Real-time input of 3D pose and gestures of a user’s hand and its applications for HCI” Proceedings of conference in Virtual Reality, March 13-17, pp. 79-86, IEEE, Yokohama, Japan(2001).


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